PLA, day one: You are only one energy stream

BigIdeasGilbert
Elizabeth Gilbert, photo credit Twitter user @brendageeker

The first event of the day on Thursday was the “Big Ideas” talk with author Elizabeth Gilbert. Gilbert is a polished speaker, and an inspiring one. Her theme for this talk was about focus. She told the audience about an encounter with a woman she admired when she was in her mid-20s; the woman, an artist, asked her, “What are you willing to give up to have the life you keep pretending you want?” Gilbert learned she needed to say no to things, even things she wanted to do, in order to shine “the spotlight of her attention” on what was most important.

“You are only one energy stream – what are you going to use it for? …The question is one of priorities – knowing what matters to you, and what does not matter to you.” Sometimes it takes a crisis: “A crisis forces a reckoning about who you are and what you care about.” You have to determine your priorities; set boundaries; and the third thing, Gilbert said, is mysticism – the idea that “there’s something going on her beyond what we can see…beyond the rational, empirical, logical.” At this stage in her life, Gilbert said, she is in search of teachers who are relaxed. Everyone is stressed, worried, anxious, so when she meets someone who is relaxed, she wonders how they got to be so at ease, and what she can learn from them. “You cannot be relaxed if you don’t know what matters to you.” Gilbert closed with words familiar to readers of Eat, Pray, Love: “Everything’s gonna be all right.”

Screen Shot 2018-03-27 at 8.11.18 PM

ECRR-logo-4CAfter Gilbert’s talk, it was into the exhibit hall to hear a quick presentation on Every Child Ready to Read: Play in the Library” from librarians from the Carroll County Public Library system in Maryland. Every Child Ready to Read consists of five simple practices that parents, caregivers, and educators can do with young children to increase early literacy skills: talking, singing, reading, writing, and playing. Skills developed in play include language, creativity, problem-solving, and social skills. The CCPL librarians described an interaction with two young children, a librarian, and a pop-up toy that illustrated all of these: the librarian helped the children take turns and introduced new vocabulary, while the children figured out how to make the animals pop up and go back down. Storytimes offer an opportunity for structured play as well, like using dry paintbrushes along with I Ain’t Gonna Paint No More, or scarves to blow in the wind with Mouse’s First Spring.

CCPL offers a 12-hour training course for educators on using play across the seven content areas of the curriculum; storytimes, playgroups, and “baby Rembrandt”; puppet theaters and Play and Learn centers in each of their libraries; and Make & Learn programming kits for use in the library and with library partners (e.g. daycares, preschools). Play and Learn centers can be set up in any space relatively inexpensively; remember to reserve one drawer for “Sanitize me!” (items that have gone into kids’ mouths). A final tip from CCPL: When you have the opportunity to renovate or redesign your space, go timeless: avoid typefaces, and try to bring the outside in (trees, trains, etc.).

Slide: Example of Creative
A slide from Too Small to Fail’s presentation: “Let’s Talk Books”

The morning session I chose also had to do with childhood development and early literacy efforts: Jane Park Woo of Too Small to Fail and Maricela Leon Barrera of the San Francisco Public Library presented “Talking is Teaching: Opportunities for Increasing Early Brain and Language Development.” Too Small To Fail’s goal is to “make small moments big,” and “to promote the importance of early brain and language development and to empower parents with tools to talk, read, and sing with their young children from birth” – work that librarians (“trusted messengers”) are already doing, making the library a perfect partner.

The SFPL already offers storytimes, Play to Learn areas at all locations, ECRR workshops, “Big SF Playdates,” an “Early Literacy Buffet” (for educators), and community partnerships. Their message to parents and caregivers is “Talk to/with your kids! Sing with them! If you’re doing that, you’re on the right track, they’re learning.” This message is generally well received.

IMG_20180322_145041
A slide from “Push Comes to Shove”

After lunch with some other folks from Massachusetts, I went to my first afternoon program, “Push Comes to Shove: Supporting Patrons of Color in Your Institution,” presented by Kristyn Caragher and Tracy Drake of the Chicago Public Library and Aisha Conner-Gaten of Loyola Marymount University.

“You have a lot of power and privilege as an information worker today,” said Conner-Gaten. Ask yourself, “How do I leverage my power to help this person?” Racism lurks in libraries: in policies, one-on-one interactions, and in programming.

  • White activists: Listen to understand, not respond. Make mistakes, be uncomfortable, apologize, educate yourself.
  • Ask: Are your policies a barrier? When were they written, why were they implemented, how often are they revisited? When you have to say no, does it make sense? Particular policies to revisit are those around sleeping, food and drink, and identification needed to get a library card.
  • Librarians are fond of jargon, but many of our abbreviations (e.g. ILL) aren’t necessarily familiar to patrons. “De-mystify and de-class the library” by reducing your use of library jargon, or making sure you explain yourself in interactions where a patron seems confused.
  • If security or police officers work in your library building, they should be familiar with (and follow!) the library’s policies. Often it is better if a librarian handles the face-to-face interactions with patrons (but leave it to security if the patron is violent). Small changes make a big impact.
  • Harness community-driven energy and effort, especially with youth. Develop engaging collaborations with students. When looking for partners, check to see if they are coming from within the community or outside it.
  • For those in a position to hire, hire more diverse staff. Give serious consideration to out-of-state candidates, and advertise in other places than library job boards (like indeed.com) if the position doesn’t require an MLS.

The presenters supplied a handout with framework terminology (oppression, anti-racism, collective liberation, and social justice) and questions for reflection (Who are you? Who is your community? Who do you serve? Who is doing good work right now at your institution? In your community? What are you doing? What are you going to do? Who are your allies/partners? What resources do you need?).

Screen Shot 2018-03-27 at 8.11.52 PM

IMG_20180322_154946
Nametags as icebreakers

For the final program of the day, I chose to go to “Lost in the Library? Never Again with User-Centered Design,” presented by Bridget Quinn-Carey of Hartford Public Library, Margaret Sullivan of Margaret Sullivan Studio, and Maxine Bleiweis of Maxine Bleiweis and Associates, LLC. The audience was encouraged to use a nametag (see photo at right), though it wasn’t an interactive session.

Quinn-Carey started by defining “design thinking.” Design thinking is: service design, human-centered design, user-centered design, user experience. (See also: http://designthinkingforlibraries.com/.) She talked about eliminating barriers to use, like offering online payment for fines (or getting rid of fines!), having an open holds shelf, eliminating computer sign-ups. Consider physical barriers, service barriers, and language barriers too. Focus on customer-centered services, library trends, community values and needs; foster and cultivate staff and public engagement. Think about your space in a new way: “The library is a place for…” “The children’s room is a place for…”

Screen Shot 2018-03-27 at 8.11.06 PM

Sullivan asked, “What kind of community do you want to create? What kind of library do you want to create?” She said to foster learning outcomes, design with empathy and intention: “Empathy is the greatest asset of the public library.” Ask, “Who are we designing this for and why? How will the space support the activities and programs to foster the feelings and outcomes that we want for our community of users?” She advised going on “service safaris” to your favorite “third places” to examine how they achieve the effects you may want to reproduce in the library. Also, ask your patrons what they love about the library already!

For her part, Bleweis talked about the importance of staff buy-in. With current staff, identify the leaders and watch for opportunities. When hiring new staff, restructure the interview process to make it experiential: have them interact with patrons, have them show you or teach you something. Throughout the library, identify the “points of confusion” and put help there. Instead of documenting questions, document interactions. At programs, overstaff them if you can (ha!) and give people roles; talk to early arrivals and follow up if necessary. (It’s much easier to initiate conversations before a program if you aren’t worrying about if the presenter will show up, if the AV will work, the temperature in the room, etc.).

I wasn’t on Twitter as much as I usually am during conferences, and there wasn’t a huge Twitter presence (unless people were using a different hashtag?) but I sent out a few quotes from the sessions I attended, and enjoyed others’ quotes and comments from other sessions, so I’ve included some of those here.

Screen Shot 2018-03-27 at 8.12.21 PM

And that was my first full day of PLA! Stay tuned for more.

 

 

Advertisements

PLA Conference 2018: Imagine the Possibilities

IMG_20180321_160127Despite “winter storm Toby,” PLA went more or less as planned. Over the next week or so, I’ll be condensing and revising my sixteen (16) pages of notes into a more easily readable, digestible format to share here, but for now, here is an outline of my conference activities:

Wednesday: Drove from the Boston area to Philly. Definitely not the worst weather conditions I’ve ever driven in, but bad enough to keep lots of people off the road, so no traffic! Arrived safely and in good time, checked in at the hotel, and went to the convention center to sign in and walk through the exhibit hall. Met some friendly vendors (especially from Charlesbridge and Candlewick), and picked up several Advanced Reader Copies (ARCs).

IMG_20180325_141615
Adult fiction and nonfiction

 

IMG_20180325_141700
YA and children’s

Thursday: Started bright and early with the morning’s “Big Ideas” talk, with author Elizabeth Gilbert. The exhibit hall opened up after her talk, and I was able to meet a few authors and pick up a few more galleys (Bob by Wendy Mass and Rebecca Stead!). Then I caught a quick (20-minute) talk at the PLA Pavilion about “Every Child Ready to Read (ECRR): Play in the Library,” and – on the other side of the exhibit hall – caught part of the AAP Children’s Publishers Book Buzz, where we heard about upcoming titles.

For the first program of the day, I chose “Talking is Teaching: Opportunities for Increasing Early Brain and Language Development,” where we heard about a partnership between the San Francisco Public Library and Too Small to Fail. Then I zipped back into the exhibit hall to meet Simon Winchester and pick up his upcoming book, The Perfectionists. Lunch, and then the first afternoon program, “Push Comes to Shove: Supporting Patrons of Color in Your Institution.” At the break between that session and the next, I caught some of the AAP Adult Publishers Book Buzz. Finally – and this was the hardest time slot to choose a program, because so many looked so good – I went to “Lost in the Library? Never Again with User-Centered Design.”

IMG_20180323_123916

Friday: Another visit to the PLA Pavilion for a quick session on “Early Literacy Enhanced Storytimes: Intentionality is the Key,” then over to sit in on part of the Children’s Book Buzz. (I ran into an old acquaintance from publishing, Juliet Grames, who is now working for SoHo Teen!) The morning program I had planned to go to, “Re-envisioning the Library: Engaging Staff and Building Capacity for Change” with Maureen Sullivan had been cancelled, so I went to “The Path to U.S. Citizenship Can Start at Public Libraries” and learned about U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Following a tweet from NYPL Recommends, I went to visit Gwen and Frank to talk about books, and I might have been on a podcast. (Do you listen to NYPL Recommends? Let me know!) They were excellent to talk to (and they were handing out neat “The Librarian Is In” buttons). I grabbed a quick lunch from Reading Terminal, then sat on the floor to listen to some of the Adult Book Buzz before it was time for the afternoon programs: “Refuting the Idea of ‘Neutral’: Supporting Civic Engagement & Information in the Library” and “The Information Needs of Citizens: Where Libraries Fit In,” the latter with Lee Rainie of the Pew Research Center.

Screen Shot 2018-03-25 at 9.32.26 PMScreen Shot 2018-03-25 at 9.31.45 PM

Saturday: Started the day early with the final “Big Ideas” speaker, Tim Wu, at 8:15. Two more sessions after that – “How to Adult: Teaching Life Skills to Teens” and “AAP Crossover Appeal: Books That Work for Teens and Adults” – and we were packed up and on the road back home.

IMG_20180322_203438Throughout the conference, I met library people from all over. I tried to strike up conversations everywhere, and met people from Grand Forks, North Dakota; Peterborough, New Hampshire; The Portland (ME) Public Library; Arkansas; New York (the Brooklyn Public Library and the NYPL); and Calgary, Canada. The Convention Center itself was also great: easy to navigate, pretty temperate (many conference centers are either overheated or like refrigerators), and full of art. And the section of Philly where it’s located is on that lovely, lovely grid, which makes it so easy to get around. Overall, a great conference!

Still here

It’s been a little while, but I’m still here. The last week and a half has been difficult because of a tragedy that occurred at the library. In the aftermath, everyone has been incredibly supportive: town officials, library administration, the local community, and the broader library community have all shown care and concern in different ways. Patrons left kind notes in the book drop while the library was closed, many people sent flowers or brought food, and a counselor has led coping groups and met with people individually.

In more pleasant news, I just wrote a long post about my favorite picture books for toddlers. And I just attended a singalong at the Cambridge Public Library for the first time and was inspired to make a song cube as a future storytime tool. (The song cube idea is stolen directly from my friend and colleague LB, a genius children’s librarian if there ever was one.) I actually had more songs that I wanted to include, but a cube only has six sides…I may need to make another one the next time we use up a box of tissues.

Song cube decoded: Turtle for “I had a little turtle, I named him Tiny Tim,” Rocket ship for “Zoom zoom zoom, we’re going to the moon,” Spider for “Itsy-Bitsy Spider,” Hand for “If you’re happy and you know it,” Teapot for “I’m a little teapot,” and ABC for the alphabet song. All pictures drawn freehand with marker and crayon, except the hand (traced my two-year-old’s hand).

I’m also very excited to be attending PLA for the first time this year. I’ve started combing more closely through the schedule, and realized that there are at least seven sessions that I want to attend in the same time slot on the same day. Where is Hermione’s Time Turner when you need it?

Questions for you, readers: (1) What are your favorite storytime inventions, songs, and books? And, (2) Are you going to PLA? Which sessions are you excited about?

 

New year, new look (and ALA YMA!)

After several years (long enough that the theme I’d been using, Misty Lake, was retired), I’ve chosen a new WordPress theme to have an updated look. (In real life, I also got a haircut, new glasses frames, and a new job. So. Changes.) Please let me know if something isn’t working the way it should!

As part of my new job, I get to work in Children’s Services, and I am loving it! I am “upstairs” at the adult services desk most of the time, but I work “downstairs” in children’s once a week. Neither desk is as busy as the library where I worked before, which is nice for me as I learn on the job. So far, projects have included cataloguing the storytime collection and organizing and updating booklists by topic/theme/genre and age/grade/reading level. (I’m making booklists “upstairs” too – read-alikes for book group selections.)

There are definitely some different questions in children’s, and some of them are much more serious and emotional than any I encountered working at the adult desk; for example, twice in less than two months I’ve helped people find books to help explain death and grief to their young children. I’m also working hard to familiarize myself with books for younger readers, particularly the chapter books and early middle grade books. A self-assigned project I’m working on is to read all of the 2017/2018 Reading Rocks books, a program for fourth- and fifth-graders in the town. (I made a new tag for it in LibraryThing; I’ve read 5 out of 20 so far.)

Big news in the children’s/YA world today is, of course, the ALA Youth Media Awards (YMA), including the Newbery, the Caldecott, and the Printz. The live stream of the announcement was here, and the award and honor books are listed below the video. As usual after the announcements, I celebrate the titles I read and enjoyed (this year: A Different Pond, Piecing Me Together, The Hate U Give, Saints & Misfits, The Eyes of the World) and start requesting those I haven’t (Wolf in the Snow; Hello, Universe; Crown: An Ode to the Fresh Cut; Long Way Down; The First Rule of Punk; We Are Okay).

Did you watch the ALA Youth Media Awards? Which winners did you cheer? Are there any books you wish had gotten awards or honors that didn’t? Which books have you added to your to-read list?

Screenshot of old blog theme
Goodbye, Misty Lake theme. So long, and thanks for all the fish.

2017 Year-End Reading Wrap-Up

Previously: 2016 year-end reading wrap-up | 2015 year-end reading wrap-up | 2014 year-end reading wrap-up | 2013 year-end reading wrap-up

Number of books read in 2017: 240

Number of reviews by month
Number of reviews by month (2017)

Audiobooks: 15, mostly children’s and YA, and including three of the partially-read books (though one of those was a Neil Gaiman short story that I realized I’d already read in another collection)

Nonfiction: 34, including a couple of nonfiction picture books and a few of the partially-read books. Also, one entire book about compost.

YA/children’s (middle grade) books read: 31

Picture books: 104, including an unspeakable amount of Maisy

Partially read books: 16, including a few cookbooks and gardening books (i.e. not necessarily designed to be read cover-to-cover)

Books read in 2017, excluding picture books and partially read books: 120

Average number of books read per month (excluding picture books and partially read books): 10

Five-star ratings: 13

Total page count: Too damn annoying to calculate from LibraryThing exports. A lot.

Author Gender pie chart
Author Gender pie chart from LibraryThing: now a definite majority of my authors (nearly 54%) is female, while 46% is male.

Looking ahead (well, further into) 2018, I haven’t set any specific goals and am not participating in any challenges.* Some of my favorite authors are publishing new books this year, and I’m looking forward to those, of course – Gayle Forman, Maggie O’Farrell, Jo Walton, Curtis Sittenfeld. Like last year, I’m aiming to read even more in the #WeNeedDiverseBooks area, for myself and for the little one. (Lately, she’s really liked Jabari Jumps, Thunder Boy Jr., and A Different Pond.)

Books that have been recommended to me by more than one person (triangulation: not just for fact-checking anymore!) usually move up on my to-read list. I’ve already made a dent in the to-read list I made in November: I’ve read Fun Home, The Hate U Give, Rebecca; I have Far From the Tree checked out from the library, and my book club just chose The Bear and the Nightingale for February. (I have the cape, I make the whoosh noises! Note: that’s a link to a Cyanide & Happiness cartoon panel.)

*Okay, not entirely true: I do plan to read all of the “Reading Rocks” books [PDF] for the 4th- and 5th-graders in Winchester, where I am now working. Proper blog post about this change to come! So far I’ve really liked Ghosts by Raina Telgemeier and am listening to the excellent audiobook of Stella By Starlight.

I do occasionally read things other than books, though I don’t get credit for it in LibraryThing: most days I read at least one article from The New York Times, and most weeks I read a few pieces from the LitHub (“the best of the literary internet”) email newsletter. I read most of the Library Link of the Day links, and occasionally will find a good piece in The Atlantic, The New Yorker, or somewhere else (Teen Vogue!) via Twitter or Publishers Lunch.

So that’s the 2017 wrap-up. How was your year in books?

Early literacy and 1000 Books Before Kindergarten

1000 Books Before Kindergarten logoThe 1000 Books Before Kindergarten initiative is one I first heard about via the Cambridge Public Library. Like all the best arts & crafts projects and recipes, it looks wildly impressive, but is actually quite simple and manageable. As their mission statement says, “Numerous studies estimate that as many as one in five children have difficulties learning to read. Reading has been associated as an early indicator of academic success. Public formal education does not typically start until ages 5-6. Before then, parents and caregivers are the first education providers during the 0-5 early critical years.” The goals of the organization are simply “to promote reading to newborns, infants, and toddlers” and “to encourage parent and child bonding through reading.”

A thousand books sounds like a lot, but remember that picture books are short, and board books are really short. If you read just one book a day, that’s 365 books in one year, 730 books in two years, 1,095 books in three years, and 1,460 books in four years. It doesn’t have to be a thousand unique books, either; young children love (and learn from) repetition, growing more familiar with words, rhymes, and patterns.

If your parents, caregivers, and teachers read to you when you were a young child, then you’ve already shared this experience and it will be easier for you to model it from the other side. If reading aloud to/with a child isn’t as natural for you, or if you aren’t sure why it is important, here are some resources to help:

  • Reading Tips for Parents from the Department of Education (in English and Spanish)
  • Early Learning tips from the Hennepin County Library: “Learn how all family members and your public library can help prepare young children to be readers with five early literacy activities [talk, sing, read, write, play] that are fun yet powerful ways to encourage early learning.”
  • The Six Early Literacy Skills [PDF] from Every Child Ready to Read (ECRR)

If you don’t know what books to read to (or with) your child, librarians can help! If you can get to a storytime, that’s great – a good storytime librarian will model great read-aloud strategies, and for younger ages will often include fingerplay, songs, and rhymes; reasonable people don’t expect two-year-olds to sit still and listen quietly for half an hour! A decent bookstore is also likely to have a weekly storytime, and staff who can recommend great books for little ones.

If you can’t get to a storytime, just ask a librarian or bookseller what they recommend, and they should be able to give suggestions based on your child’s age and interests. Here are some other resources for finding great books to share with your child:

Does your library, bookstore, school, or other organization support 1000 Books Before Kindergarten? Have you participated with your child? There are participation resources on the site, from reading logs to certificates to apps to hashtags, though my favorite idea is keeping a handwritten reading journal. In general I don’t like incentives (e.g. “if you read 100 books you get a sticker”) because reading is its own reward (intrinsic motivation), but I like the T-shirt – it reflects pride in an accomplishment, and helps spread the word about the program.

1000 Books Before Kindergarten display at the Guilford (CT) Public Library
1000 Books Before Kindergarten display at the Guilford (CT) Public Library (names and faces obscured for privacy purposes)

We Need Diverse Books

The most recent issue of Kirkus is a “diversity issue,” with about 40 pages of articles and essays that give different perspectives on diversity in literature. I’m still making my way through it, but I loved this quote from author Padma Venkatraman:

“Books are more than mere mirrors or windows; they are keys to compassion. And novels don’t just expose readers to differences, they allow readers to experience diversity. They allow us to live within another’s skin, think another’s thoughts, feel the depths of another’s soul. Novels transport, transform, and, most importantly, allow us to transcend prejudice. When we immerse ourselves in characters whose religions are different than our own, our empathy is enhanced. We move closer to embracing people of all religions.”

It reminded me a bit of the way Neil Gaiman talks about fiction (“Fiction can show you a different world. It can take you somewhere you’ve never been”), and what Caitlin Moran wrote in her essay “Alma Mater” about growing up in the library:

“The shelves were supposed to be loaded with books – but they were, of course, really doors….A library in the middle of a community is a cross between an emergency exit, a life raft and a festival. They are cathedrals of the mind; hospitals of the soul; theme parks of the imagination….They are the only sheltered public spaces where you are not a consumer, but a citizen instead.”

When Venkatraman writes about mirrors and windows, she is referencing Rudine Sims Bishop’s 1990 article “Mirrors, Windows, and Sliding Glass Doors.” Books that are mirrors reflect the reader’s self and own world back at them; books that are windows show the reader another person or people and world; books that are sliding glass doors allow the reader to “enter” another world.

The San Antonio Public Library page “Diversity in the Classroom: Building Your (Early Childhood) Library with Mirrors and Windows” has a video clip of Bishop from January 2015. In it, Bishop says, “Children need to see themselves reflected, but books can also be windows, so you can look through and see other worlds, and see how they match up or don’t match up to [your] own. But the sliding glass door allows you to enter that world as well, so that’s the reason diversity needs to go both ways.” She says that just as children of color need to see themselves in books, white children – who see plenty of themselves in books – need to see characters of other cultures, races, and religions as well, to provide a more accurate picture of the world as it is (“colorful”).

The #WeNeedDiverseBooks movement FAQ page cites an infographic produced by multicultural publisher Lee & Low Books (“About everyone. For everyone”), which used statistics from the Cooperative Children’s Book Center and census data. Although 37% of the U.S. population are people of color, only 10% of published children’s books contain multicultural content. Note that that includes books where the main character might not be a person of color, and it also doesn’t mean that the author was a person of color.

We Need Diverse Books virtual buttonWhere do we go from here? We need more diversity at all levels of publishing, in libraries, in schools, in the bookselling business. We need to write, publish, read, and promote diverse books; “multicultural books don’t sell” is no longer a valid argument, if it ever was. We need more stories about more different people and places. We’re getting there, but too slowly.

8/17/17 Edited to add:

As I made my way through the rest of the issue, I found two more quotes I wanted to share. The first is from Megan Dowd Lambert, an author, senior lecturer in children’s literature at Simmons, and Kirkus reviewer; she in turn is quoting Mary Robinette Kowel:

“It’s not about adding diversity for the sake of diversity, it’s about subtracting homogeneity for the sake of realism.”

Though our society is far more segregated than it ought to be, and some kids may rarely see people outside of their own race, culture, or class, the world is “colorful” and literature ought to reflect that. In fact, books are where many people encounter new ideas and perspectives and learn about the world. “Armchair traveling” isn’t just for seeing the lives of ancient royalty, dangerous mountain-climbing expeditions, or sea voyages; it may be a way to see into the next neighborhood.

“…Disability comes from scarcity and environment and other people’s prejudices as much as the body. Silencing the word can silence real injustices, emotions, and experiences. Diverse books are tools for empathy, but we can’t address what we won’t say.”

This is from Amy Robinson, children’s librarian and Kirkus reviewer. She makes an important point about environment contributing to disability. Are our built environments inclusive, or do they present barriers? (Do elevators work? Are aisles wide enough? Are there ramps or only stairs? Is signage large and clear? Are there curb cuts on sidewalks? Are sidewalks even or broken, covered in snow or cleared?) In many cases, a disability may only present extra difficulty because of obstacles in the world – in the built environment or as part of prevailing cultural and societal ideas. Let’s figure out what those obstacles are (it’s often very hard to imagine, so ask people who confront them) and start removing them.